New York City six years after Sandy. Is it ready for the next one?

More than six years have past since superstorm Sandy swamped New York City on October 22, 2012. If a storm of similar strength hit the city today, the streets that Sandy flooded would once again flood to the same depth. While there’s been lots of talk (and some planning), little actual construction work has been done to protect the city from another serious storm surge. However, parts of the city, lower Manhattan in particular, have been ‘hardened’ in a multitude of  ways that are generally invisible to the casual observer.

The city’s subway system suffered an estimated $4.8 billion worth of damage due to the flooding of tunnels with salt water. NY Governor Andrew Cuomo announced (May 16, 2013) plans to ‘flood-proof’ the subway and protect its critical elements against “similar storms that we expect to arrive in the future.” No easy task. The system is old and wasn’t designed with super storms and sea level rise in mind. Individual openings through which water can enter the system from the surface in flood prone areas are many — more than 3,500 according to an estimate made at the time — all of them requiring closure. The list of subway elements in need of flood proofing, included:

Station entrances, ventilator gratings, vents, elevator shafts and openings, access hatches, emergency exits, manholes, utility entrances, escalators, machine rooms, pump rooms, sewer lines, conduit ducts, utility services, lighting, HVAC systems, building entrances and other right of way equipment.

The smell and feel of fetid subway air puffing up through sidewalk gratings are sensations experienced daily by New Yorker’s. How to stop flood waters pouring down through those same gratings, was just one of the challenges faced by the Transportation Authority. One solution: metal hatches fitted under the gratings and ready to slide across the openings when needed. The following photo from 2017 shows MTA Chairman Joe Lhota, explaining the new system to the press.

Photo of MTA Chaireman and press examining subway grating flood prevention devices
MTA chairman Joe Lhota and members of the press examine subway grating flood prevention devices. Image: MTA

Because the openings are so large, flood proofing subway entrance stairways is critically important. The photo below shows an MTA employee deploying a stairwell Flex-Gate (ILC Dover Co) from its housing.

Photo of MTA employee deploying subway entrance flood prevention device
MTA employee deploying subway entrance flood prevention device. MTA Image

New York’s private sector business’s also suffered heavy damage from superstorm Sandy. Before Sandy, equipment such as electrical gear and emergency generators were typically installed in the basements of the city’s high rise buildings. That equipment was destroyed when basements flooded. Repairs took weeks, in some cases, months. Some older inhabitants of residential towers, unable to navigate dark stairwells, were trapped in their apartments for days. Architects and builders have learned from the reports. The American Copper Building provides a good example (photo below). This copper clad, residential duel-tower, built at 626 First Ave., incorporates several post-Sandy design features:

Photo of American Copper Bldg., New York City
American Copper Building.

(1) The building has no penthouse. Instead, the top floors are given over to emergency equipment designed to provide essential services to the whole building for at least a week in the event a serious storm shuts the City down. According to real estate sources, the owners, JDS Development Group (Architects: SHoP) are happy to provide the feature because, in this new age of climate change, they see it as a sales asset That compensates for the loss of penthouse revenue.
(2) Stone rather than wood is used as decorative material in the building’s lobby areas. The rational for its use is that stone will suffer less damage from being submerged in flood waters, and should therefore take less time to repair.
(3) Installing electrical gear on the second floor of new high-rise buildings rather than in their basements, guarantees that the equipment will remain safe from flood waters. This flood-proofing technique has been incorpoated into the design of the American Copper Building, as the building’s blank second-floor windows indicate (see photo below).

Photo of American Copper Building from E 36th Street
Americans Copper Building from E 36th Street. Google image

The storm that hit New York in 2012, was a category 2 hurricane. Is the city prepared for a category 3 or 4 hurricane? New Yorker’s do not want to find out.

New Bridge across the Tappan Zee

“In the bosom of one of those spacious coves which indent the eastern shore of the Hudson, at that broad expansion of the river denominated by the ancient Dutch navigators the Tappan Zee, and where they always prudently shortened sail and implored the protection of St. Nicholas when they crossed, there lies a small market town or rural port, which by some is called Greensburgh, but which is more generally and properly known by the name of Tarry Town.”
— From: The Legend Of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving (1820)

Image of new Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River
The Tappan Zee/Governor Mario M. Cuomo Bridge. Image produced by American Bridge Co.

The new Tappan Zee Bridge — officially named the Governor Mario M. Cuomo Bridge — crosses the Hudson River at Tarrytown, Westchester Co., New York, about 24 miles north of Midtown, Manhattan. The twin cable-stayed bridge replaces the original Tappan Zee Bridge, which was built during the Korean War. Opened in 1955, the old bridge was designed to carry 100,000 vehicles a day and last fifty years. By the year 2000, it was carrying 140,000 vehicles a day and had started to fall apart. The collapse of the I-35W bridge in Minneapolis in November 2008, injected a sense of urgency into the planning process for a replacement. The replacement project was added to New York’s list of projects eligible for federal funds in 2012 and “fast tracked” for approval by the Obama Administration (a concept foreign to the present Trump administration).

The design/build contract was awarded to a consortium comprised of Fluor Corp., American Bridge Co., Granite Construction, and Traylor Bros Inc. The bridge features a superstructure containing eight general traffic lanes, plus four emergency lanes (four + two, west bound; four + two, east bound). It also features a shared-use path for bikes and pedestrians.

Diagram of new Tappan Zee Bridge showing dimensions
Diagram of new Tappan Zee Bridge with dimensions. Image from American Bridge Co. website

The new bridge was built parallel to the old Tappan Zee bridge. The last of the old bridge’s structure was brought down by explosives on January 15th. The photo below, taken the following day, shows NY Governor Andrew Cuomo surveying the new bridge and the remains of the old bridge. Parts of the old bridge can be seen lying in the river immediately to the left of the new bridge.

NY Governor Andrew Cuomo surveying the new Tappan Zee Bridge from the air
Governor Andrew Cuomo surveying the new and old Tappan Zee Bridges. Photo credit: Melissa DeRosa via Twitter, Jan 16

The new bridge is operated by the NY State Thruway Authority. The Authority plans to introduce electronic (cashless) tolling later this year. This will enable tolling at highway speeds. Overhead surveillance equipment will read license plates and identify types of vehicles as they pass, then automatically send bills to the registered owners. The alternative for drivers who cross the bridge frequently will be to pay in advance by purchasing some sort of electronically readable sticker.

It’s impossible to see a bridge by driving across it. To see the new Tappan Zee Bridge, exit the I-87 via Broadway and head north into Tarrytown. Make your way to Pierson Park on the water front. You’ll find a scenic river walk there. Parking is available off W Main Street, beside the Tarrytown Recreation Community Center and close to Pierson Park (circled in yellow on the satellite image below).

Satellite image of Tappan Zee Bridge , New York
Satellite image of Tappan Zee Bridge. Pierson Park river view path area circled in yellow. Google Maps.

Trump mulls funding for new Hudson River Rail Tunnel, but continues to balk

Photo showing scene inside Penn Station, NYC
Inside Pennsylvania Station, New York City

Every weekday, about 450 trains pass through the Hudson River Rail Tunnel carrying New Jersey commuters to and from NYC’s Penn Station, as well as Amtrak passengers traveling the Northeast Corridor between Boston, New York, and Washington. The tunnel is over one hundred years old and seriously decayed, and it can’t be renovated until a new tunnel is built. The estimated cost for a new tunnel: $13 billion.

Chuck Schumer, Democratic Senator from New York and Senate Minority Leader, speaking to transportation planners in December 2016 (Bloomberg News report) said: “We don’t build this, and these tunnels fail, the whole economy will collapse. There will be a deep recession in the New York metropolitan area and a recession probably in the whole country.”

A year earlier, in 2015, the federal government reached an agreement with New York and New Jersey to split the cost of a new tunnel three ways, with the feds (who own the tunnel) paying fifty percent. But when Donald Trump assumed the presidency, what had once been considered a done deal, became undone. No federal funding is guaranteed these days. There are no done deals. Deals are fluid things, subject to cancellation on a whim.

The current president is like the ogre featured in fairy tails, the one pictured lurking under a bridge, blocking traffic and the way forward. What does the ogre want? He wants wins, personal wins, and federal funds are a means of getting them. Need federal funds? Give him a win. No win, no funding. And don’t forget, he’s armed with a bag of derogatory names and a veto-tipped cudgel. If you don’t give this ogre what he wants he’ll clobber you.

Last October, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo starred in a video in which he’s seen inside the Hudson Tunnel pulling loose chunks of concrete from its wall (see: Help! The Hudson River Rail Tunnel is falling to bits). The New York Times called it a stunt designed solely to win over an audience of one, the one in the Oval Office. Apparently the stunt worked because a month later, the President invited Governor Cuomo to a meeting in Washington to discuss the need for funding.

At a press briefing November 28, the governor described the meeting as “productive.” Did he a get a funding commitment? No. Will he get one? That depends on what’s in it for the President. Some sort of quid pro quo? Support for his boarder wall in exchange for a funding commitment perhaps? Governor Cuomo says no, not from him. What then? The tunnel project, even if it started today, will not be completed for 8 to 10 years. If there’s a win in that situation for Mr. Trump, I don’t see it. Will he support the project simply because it’s the right thing to do? What do you think?
The following YouTube video shows the Press Briefing held by Governor Cuomo following his meeting with President Trump. It’s worth watching in its entirety.